GeoTech Geoinclusion® is a unique, patented geosynthetic product that can
simultaneously provide the functions of compressible inclusion, thermal
insulation and drainage. The GeoTech Geoinclusion® is innovative in its
ability to deform under load in a controlled, predictable fashion.
The Geoinclusion® is used in compressible inclusion applications where
a strong yet lightweight material is required to reduce stresses and provide
fluid drainage on structural elements.
When placed between earth materials and a structure, the GeoTech Geoinclusion®
offers distinct cost and performance benefits over alternatives.
Earth pressure is reduced because the Geoinclusion® compresses with relatively
little resistance under:
- the gravity stress of the retained soil,
- the expansion of swelling soils, rock, or freezing soils,
- the inertial loading of large scale events such as earthquakes or
Hydrostatic pressure and gases, such as radon or methane, are relieved
when the Geoinclusion® is part of a hydrostatic pressure relief or gas
venting system. Water and gases are vented through the drainage composite
portion of the Geoinclusion.
Quality of below grade space is improved through the Geoinclusion's thermal
insulating characteristics resulting in:
- lower heating costs,
- reduced dehumidification costs because the dew point is moved to outside
the below grade space.
Geoinclusion® provides superior earth vibration damping from seismic activity
and road and rail traffic. Sound vibration damping is reduced both from
or into below grade spaces.
The Geoinclusion® is environmentally friendly:
- It is chemically and biologically inert.
- It is a permanent filler between earth materials and the structure.
- There is no negative environmental impact on earth materials or ground
Exposed retaining walls perform better:
*Tested against termites and carpenter ants. Manufacturer has specific
species on file. Perform Guard is a registered trademark of the AFM Corporation.
- Thermal insulation can prevent freezing of the retained soil. Stresses
associated with expansion during freezing are absorbed by the Geoinclusion.
- With a polymeric reinforcement located in the retained soil, thermal
insulation can reduce creep of the reinforcement which results when
the soil is heated by solar radiation on the face of the wall.
- Long term structural and thermal performance is assured by the incorporation
of Perform Guard®.* Perform Guard is made under a patented process**
which uses a natural mineral additive to make EPS insect resistant.
**Protected under U.S. Patents No. 5,194,323 and No. 5,720,108. Other U.S.
and Foreign Patents Pending. ©1997 AFM Corporation
and Materials: The GeoTech Geoinclusion® consists of a rectangular
panel of GeoTech TerraLite or TerraFlex™ Elasticised Geofoam laminated to
a GeoTech Insulated Drainage Panel which combines a drainage medium and
Standard panel dimensions are 1219 mm (4 feet) wide by 1219 mm (4 feet)
long with the thickness dependent on specific project requirements. Other
panel shapes and dimensions can be produced on a special order basis.
The material used for the EPS-block component may be either GeoTech TerraLite
or TerraFlex™ depending on project specific requirements.
The GeoTech TerraLite has a nominal density of 12 kg/m3 (0.75
lb./ft.3) to 32 kg/m3 (2.00 lb./ft.3).
Refer to the TerraLite product literature for more specific information.
TerraFlex™ Elasticized Geofoam can also be used as a component of the
Geoinclusion. The TerraFlex™ configuration has increased compressibility
under stresses of relatively small magnitude compared to the TerraLite
Geofoam. Refer to the TerraFlex™ product literature for more specific information.
Details concerning the general thermal properties of the the GeoTech
TerraLite family of products and the capabilities of the GeoTech Insulated
Drainage Panel are available separately.
Technical Data: To select the required thickness
of the geofoam, the design professional should develop project-specific
design curves relating deformation of the ground surface and stress at
the ground surface from the expanding soil. In general, the largest stress
occurs under confined (zero deformation) conditions and the largest deformation
occurs under free-swell (zero stress) conditions. The designer must select
a magnitude of surface stress and corresponding deformation that is intermediate
to these limiting conditions and for which the structure will be designed.
Note: In the absence of data relating to surface
stress and deformation, the designer can use deformations estimated using
free-swell tests and arbitrarily select a stress level for which the structure
will be designed.
1 shows the stress-strain relationship of TerraFlex™ Elasticized Geofoam
in rapid loading, unconfined axial compression at a strain rate of 10%
per minute at room temperature. To determine the thickness of TerraFlex™
required for project specific conditions Graph 1 is used to estimate the
strain level in the Geofoam.
- Find the stress magnitude for which the structure will be designed
on the vertical axis.
- Move horizontally to the appropriate stress-strain curve. For the
most conservative design, the rapid loading curve should be used. For
greater economy under conditions when the ground expansion is expected
to develop over an extended period of time, one of the extended time
curves in Graph 2 can be used. For geofoam strains greater than approximately
40%, only the rapid loading curve should be used.
- Move vertically downward and scale off the corresponding Geofoam strain
The required thickness of Geofoam is the calculated using the following
Geofoam Thickness =
magnitude of surface deformation x 100)
Geofoam strain (in %)
this simple approach, different combinations of stress transmitted to the
structure and Geofoam thickness can be evaluated to find the most cost effective
Graph 2 shows isochronous stress
- strain curves for different durations of loading for TerraFlex™ Geofoam.
The stress-strain curves were developed using the results of unconfined
axial compression creep tests.
Installation: For most applications, the
Geoinclusion® is installed in accordance with the following guidelines.
Additional guidelines for specific applications should be developed by
the design engineer.
- Surfaces should be clean, dry and sound; free of excessive dust, dirt,
loose paint, oil, and grease or any foreign matter that would interfere
with a good bond.
- When applying over waterproofing or dampproofing materials, check
to determine compatibility. Be sure concrete and waterproofing materials
are well cured and dry.
- Apply an approved adhesive as required by Architect/Engineer to the EPS
side of the Geoinclusion. Place walnut sized daubs of adhesive alternately
spaced every 8" - 12" apart across the surface of the Geoinclusion®
board, beginning 3" from the edges.
- Press panels firmly against wall surfaces, making sure vertical joints
are staggered and all joints are butted tightly.
- Panels are furnished with a 2" minimum fabric lap on two adjacent
edges. Install panels so that all joints are completely covered by geotextile
fabric, making sure that fabric side faces the earth. Begin first row
with fabric lap at the bottom. The adjacent side lap will then be in the
he left vertical position. Additional spot-gluing of fabric joints may
be necessary during backfill operations to insure complete masking of
Availability and Cost: Cost is directly
related to the thickness of the material. Please contact GeoTech Systems
Corporation to determine current material cost. The GeoTech Geoinclusion®
is available throughout the United States, Canada and Puerto Rico.
Maintenance: Under normal conditions of use,
the GeoTech Geoinclusion® requires no maintenance for the life of the system.
Technical Services: Complete technical services
are available from GeoTech Systems Corporation and its licensed manufacturers
or distributors. Services include assistance during the design and specifications
stages. Sales representatives can also work with the contractor through
the initial stages of application to assure proper installation.
The Manufacturer: GeoTech Systems Corporation
was founded in 1982 to provide state of the art solutions to the waterproofing,
drainage, structural and insulating challenges associated with below grade